The main symptoms that allow to suspect diabetes include unmotivated weakness, thirst, excessive urination, burning and discomfort in the feet, reduced vision, weight gain (type 2 diabetes) or loss (type 1), interruptions in sexual function.
Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is based on studies of fasting sugar, sugar load in the blood and urine, and on the study of “hidden sugar” (glycosylated hemoglobin) in the blood. Sugar on an empty stomach is more than 7.0 (126), and 2 hours after a load of more than 10 (180), as well as glycosylated hemoglobin more than 7.0, allow you to establish the diagnosis of diabetes with 100% accuracy. Accordingly, fasting sugar 6 (108) – 8 (144), after a load of less than 7.5, and glycosylated hemoglobin 6.3 – 7.0, suggest prediabetes and impaired carbohydrate tolerance. A single measurement of blood glucose is not a basis for diagnosis.